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I can't change the brightness on my screen via hotkeys or any other method. I'm stuck with low brightness which is very hard on my eyes during long periods in front of my laptop. Is there any working solution out there?

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Give this a try:
look at the kernel boot parameters
the file to edit is /etc/default/grub
after editing run sudo update-grub and reboot
to edit the file use
gksu [leafpad/gedit/mousepad/geany/scite] /etc/default/grub
[leafpad/gedit/mousepad/geany/scite] is a list of names, if i wanted gedit i would do this:
gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub

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gksudo no longer works in 13.04. – To Do Apr 28 '13 at 17:40
changed gksudo to gksu – GM-Script-Writer-62850 Apr 28 '13 at 18:16
Sorry but gksu and gksudo are the same (the latter points to the former). This package was leftout of 13.04 and it is recommended to run sudo in a terminal instead. – To Do Apr 29 '13 at 10:52
1. gksu and gksudo are not quite the same see here 2. Why is gksu no longer installed by default in 13.04 – Warren Hill May 1 '13 at 8:26

Try installing the xbacklight package:

$ Sudo apt-get install xbacklight

You can then adjust the settings from a terminal using commands found here.

To increase brightness by 20%:

$ sudo xbacklight -inc 20

Alternatively to decrease:

$ sudo xbacklight -dec 20

Or use the -set parameter to define the exact level:

$ sudo xbacklight -set 50

If this works for you may want to add a new startup entry so it runs on boot. Open "Startup Applications" and add the following details:

Name: Brightness

Command: xbacklight -set 60

Click add and you are done! Hope this helps.

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