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Here is the output of boot-repair:

The GRUB keeps telling me this while I try to boot into Windows:

error: invalid efi path

I can boot into Ubuntu without problems.

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Can you boot into some OS? – Lucio Apr 14 '13 at 0:40
Yes. I can boot into Ubuntu – RedMage Apr 14 '13 at 16:45
up vote 1 down vote accepted

First, which Windows entry are you trying to use? There are three in the grub.cfg file that you posted. The first two (Windows 7 (loader) (on /dev/sda3) and Windows Recovery Environment (loader) (on /dev/sda5)) won't work. The third (Windows 7 UEFI) is closer to working, but it sets the wrong --root option; it should read --root CF46-460C, not --root 0EEC3E6EEC3E5067. To fix this, you'll need to edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom and then run sudo update-grub.

If that doesn't work, you could try another boot manager, such as rEFInd, which tends to be less finicky about launching Windows. Booting to Ubuntu and then installing the rEFInd Debian package should set everything up to work, although you might then want to tweak a few settings, especially if you see duplicate entries in the menu. (Check the dont_scan_volumes, dont_scan_dirs, and dont_scan_files options in refind.conf.)

EDIT: If selecting the Windows entry in rEFInd brings you to GRUB, then something (probably the Ubuntu Boot Repair tool) has copied GRUB over the Windows boot loader. With any luck, you should be able to find the original file under a backup filename and copy it back. From Ubuntu, the Windows boot loader (which has been replaced by GRUB) is /boot/efi/EFI/Microsoft/Boot/bootmgfw.efi. Look for this file, and look for a file with a similar name, like bkpbootmgfw.efi or bootmgfw.efi.grb. Copy the backup file over the bootmgfw.efi file (creating your own backup first, just to be on the safe side).

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OK! I tried changing the root item. It did not work. I will try your refind, sir. I just installed the debian package. We will now reboot! – RedMage Apr 14 '13 at 16:41
I rebooted and saw the beautiful refind boot menu. I chose the windows option and it took me to the same grub loader screen created by the setup I pasted. I guess that saying dont_scan_ something will prevent that, correct? – RedMage Apr 14 '13 at 16:46
See the edit in my main post. – Rod Smith Apr 14 '13 at 17:10
I did what your edit recommended. It turns out the files were identical, since I ran boot-repair a couple times. I suppose I'll have to mount the win partition and look for the Windows boot loader there. – RedMage Apr 14 '13 at 18:32
If you've got a Windows 7 install CD, you can find it in the SOURCES/install.wim file, which you can extract using 7zip, among other tools. The file is stored in the archive as 1/Windows/Boot/EFI/bootmgfw.efi. – Rod Smith Apr 15 '13 at 2:34

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