Yes you can.
In Gimp you have two tools:
The Fuzzy Select Tool
Which will allow you to choose an area based on the color and the similarity using a few additional tools like thresholding, mode, selection by composite, channel, saturation and value and a few more.
In the next example I am using the Fuzzy Select Tool which is selecting only the white color around the logo.
Using the same tool, I am adding inner sections of the logo by keeping the Shift key pressed while clicking on the sections to add.
The Select by Color Tool
With this tool you can choose which color base regions you wish to choose with just a click, using additional tools, like: mode, selection by composite, channel, saturation and value and a few more.
In the next screenshot I am using the Select by Color tool in order to click into the center oval of the number nine in the logo in order to choose all the regions that are similar (based on the threshold) to the color I picked when clicking.
As in the previous tool, you can keep the Shift key pressed while clicking in order to continue adding adjacent areas.
Based on thresholding, the selection may be more accurate.
Depending on the mode that you use, you can have the effect that you wish. In the next example I have activated the second mode which will act as additive in both the Fuzzy and Color selection tools.