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What encryption algorithm is used by the partition encryption function of Disk Utility?

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Ext4 does not have any encryption capability. If you have an encrypted ext4 filesystem, something else is doing the encryption, and if you don't tell us what it is, we can't tell. – Gilles Mar 29 '13 at 21:07
@Gilles Thanks for pointing that out. Corrected the question. – Razick Mar 29 '13 at 21:12

gnome-disk-utility uses crypttab, which in turn uses luks (linux unified key setup) and dm-crypt to provide encryption.

Luks uses TKS1 and the PBKDF2 hash algorithm.

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