The Title says everything. Does dconf use DesktopCouch as database backend? Will it be possible to sync the configuration? And is it possible to select, what should be synced?
No. As the GNOME Live wiki says, dconf is a low-level configuration system. Its main purpose is to provide a backend to GSettings on platforms that don't already have configuration storage systems.
I believe the name "dconf" comes from its connection to d-bus.