My work laptop is an HP EliteBook with one hard drive in it. On that hard drive is a encryption program that boots up called "safeboot", you enter your username and password and then Windows boots up. Wanting to use this for personal use I removed the CD drive and installed a 2nd hard drive bay instead. On the 2nd hard drive I loaded Linux Mint 14 and was using it for months. Then I wanted to try Ubuntu 12.10 so I partitioned the 2nd hard drive and installed 12.10. Now when booting up if I choose to boot from the first hard drive it goes straight into the grub boot loader. If I remove the 2nd hard drive and boot up it says grub is missing. Any thoughts?
In order to understand what's going on here, you need to understand exactly how Grub works. Because a bootloader installed to a hard-drive's MBR (Master Boot Record) must not be larger than 512 bytes, Grub is divided into two stages:
When installing Ubuntu, the installer typically copies Stage 1 to the MBR of the first disk. Because you installed Ubuntu to the second disk, Stage 2 was likely installed there.
This is because Stage 2 (which, if you remember, is responsible for actually displaying the menu) is located on the disk you removed.
Grub is capable of chainloading Windows - this means that Grub simply invokes Windows' own bootloader as if it had been directly invoked by the BIOS. If Windows isn't showing up in the Grub menu, then the problem is that Grub isn't detecting the Windows installation.