I'm not sure the suggested duplicate quite applies at the moment. Fact is you don't need to set up virtualenv environments or follow best practices to get up off the ground and personally, I think trying to do so will scare you off Python, which is a beautiful language and a very powerful community of tools.
To get a brief glimpse at Python, you can just run
python in a terminal and you're dumped into a live python environment. You can play around with code examples to your heart's content.
For bigger things (or when you get fed up of the interactive python console's limitations) you can write Python scripts very easily. Write a file in Python syntax, and then just run
python filename and it'll run. Simples.
If you really want to learn Python, I seriously recommend two things:
http://learnpythonthehardway.org/book/ - It sounds tough but it's not. The setup section for Linux has a really practical way of getting
gedit up to speed too, so don't miss that out.
The O'Reilly Python Pocket Reference - This probably only applies if you have experience with other programming languages. I was forever trying to work out how dicts and tuples differed from other languages' arrays and the pocket reference is great for looking it up quickly. Better than Google in my experience. Again, if you don't know what an array is, this might not be much help for you.
Once you advance to projects where you might need best practices, that's the time to start looking at
virtualenv (mostly server deployment stuff) or frameworks or anything like that.
Most importantly: have fun.
A note of warning on Python 3.x
A couple of people are suggesting installing (if you need to) and using Python 3. I disagree with this stance. As the asker of the question you're probably completely unaware of the differences between the two or even that there were two versions. That's not your fault - that's just what being a beginner is all about.
Python 3.x has been around for years already but everybody still uses 2.x. I'm serious. Other people may suggest that Py3k is "good enough to learn on" but I posit that at least 90% of all the good tutorials and documentation out there is for Python 2 and trying to follow it in Python 3 will result in tears.
And as you progress and want to pull in external libraries (the really fun bit in Python!) you're going to find that only a tiny slither of the community have migrated over. Inevitably the thing you want to use hasn't been ported and you're left in a pool of your own tears again.
So I know it's 2013 and we're all half-robots floating in space, but take some advice from a cranky Python developer: stick with the old stuff for now. Things for Py3k will improve and probably within the next couple of years it'll be safe to use...
... by which time Python 4 will be released. C'est la vie.