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On Ubuntu Server 12.04, how can I configure an account to use a locale other than the system default local? Say if I wanted Russian users to be able to use Russian in the terminal ... and Polish users to use Polish, how can I achieve that?

The default locale is supposed to remain at en_US in its various incarnations (it defaults to the UTF-8 variant).

The ideal solution would be something where I can set it in adduser and friends, but I didn't find such option.

Note: no X11 and the question is solely about the terminal.

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Try to add in ~/.profile of your user: export LANG=prefered_local

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