Yes, it seems your battery has reached the end of its life. If it's in warranty, return it.
Is there any way I can get more information?
upower -d in a terminal. It's just a little bit more verbose.
Can I improve this without getting a new battery?
Not really. These numbers are reported by the embedded controller of your PC. It's not something you can do about in software.
You can try recalibration by completely depleting it first. Ignore warnings about shutdown in a safe environment such as a Live CD and make sure the laptop turns off by itself. Then recharge it fully again.
Some laptop manufacturers have a calibration tool for this. Not really of any help in most cases, I can tell you from past experience.