I think you didn't quite get the point of what Ubuntu really is.
Ubuntu does not seamlessly integrate with Windows - it's a whole new Operating System you've just installed. There are ways to access your files on your Windows partition, but that's a very common question here. I've gathered some questions you might be interested in reading below!
You can't start applications you've already installed in Windows - Ubuntu is not even like Windows. You'll have to find alternatives to those unavailable in Ubuntu the regular way. For example, Chrome is provided for Ubuntu by Google, while most other applications are available in Software Center (start here, not on the net!).
I suggest to search there application by their function, rather than the name you're used to in Windows. E.g. search for "photo editor" rather than "Photoshop", or "text editor" rather than "Notepad". The Software Center also provides a rating other users have given this piece of software, similar to how the Google Play store works. This makes it very convenient to pick the applications.
I hope you'll find alternatives for the software you're used to in Windows. Make sure you get rid of that Windows mindset you may have - it's not worth looking back all the time if you want to make the switch!
Feel free to ask more specific questions here (but please do a search first - some might already have been asked/answered!).