during the gameplay, while outside, I get problems in the rendering of what I guess would be lighting and/or weather effects. Even with Effects level to "low". The scenery is rendered properly, no texture missing, but is overlapped by single color polygons. With Effects level higher than "low", those rendering problems get worse, the sky is not rendered at all, with varying colors and contours of the scenery leaving traces in the sky. I am a newbie and I've been not able to get screenshots to post. I'd appreciate if you could please help me, also in extracting the information needed from you in order to debug the problem. I couldn't find any further information about other Lnux distributions in the Internet.
I had the same problems. I have an Intel HD 4000 Graphics Chip.
Using the newest driver from the Xorg-Edgers Repository (ppa:xorg-edgers/ppa) finally fixed it for me on Ubuntu 12.10.
Try updating your computer. Technical details:
Since GTA:SA isn't available for Ubuntu, I suppose you're running it with Wine, which currently has the version 1.4.1-0ubuntu1 in Ubuntu 12.10.
The bug seems to be a known (and fixed) bug in the Mesa drivers. There is a CLOSED UPSTREAM-bug on the WineHQ-bugzilla, which can be found at WineHQ Bugzilla link. Thus, either implementing the workaround in comment 4 or updating your MESA drivers to a newer version should do (according to https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/mesa - the Quantal Mesa version is already 9.0.0 - so I assume just upgrading your computer should do).
See the WineHQ AppDB San Andreas page for details regarding GTA:SA in Wine.