Linux partitions have a backup of the superblock.
sudo dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 | grep superblock
You should get something like this:
Primary superblock at 0, Group descriptors at 1-6
Backup superblock at 32768, Group descriptors at 32769-32774
Backup superblock at 98304, Group descriptors at 98305-98310
Backup superblock at 163840, Group descriptors at 163841-163846
Backup superblock at 229376, Group descriptors at 229377-229382
Backup superblock at 294912, Group descriptors at 294913-294918
Try repairing the partition using the backup superblock:
sudo fsck -b 32768 /dev/sda2
Only run this and other
fsck commands while your file system is unmounted. Make the necessary changes to the block number according to your
When it's ready, try mounting again. Hope this helps.
Source: Linux: Recover Corrupted Partition From A Bad Superblock