I've spent quite some time working on this and so far I've found some workarounds but no true solution. (I originally included several links for reference, but since I'm new I quickly found out that I'm only allowed to post two)
The first solution I found was from a Lenovo site. It referenced Ubuntu documentation along with some solutions. One of the solutions I attempted was this Ubuntu forum post recommendation which ended up making things worse by causing my touchpad tab to no longer appear under the system settings (the mouse tab was still there under mouse and touchpad options, but not the touchpad tab). To restore the tab, I simply did a fresh install.
I then found this post which explained that my "right click" could work by double tapping with two fingers. I'm glad I found this because I hadn't realized this would work (sorry if this obvious to many). This somewhat solves the issue because this does indeed work as a right click although not exactly like I would intend it would.
Which brings me to the question...how can I make the touch pad right click as it would or previously did under windows? I read this a post which looks like it may be somewhat what I'm looking for but not quite an elegant solution (it creates a right click button area). Is there anything more seamless/fully functional? Thanks for your help!