Is there a font-package the Ubuntu ships out that has more fonts?
Yes, you can have Windows TrueType fonts through Ubuntu Restricted Extras (Package that installs beyond fonts, flash, java and audio and video codecs) and TrueType Microsoft fonts Installer, to get them type the following in the terminal:
In a terminal...
will yield all results. Or...
will yield a list of TrueType fonts. You could save the output to a file to examine it:
If you wanted 465 free TTF fonts in the ttf-aenigma package and the tuffy font after reading the output, then:
Aside from packages, you can create a directory for your own fonts.
Then, drop as many fonts as you like into that directory (~/.fonts). You've also got some graphical software selection tools available if you do not like the terminal.