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To my novice eyes it appears that the /sda SSD is the problem. File system "unknown". /sdb is my home drive and appears intact.

Is there anything I can do to attempt recovery on the SSD?

 => Grub2 (v2.00) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks at sector 1 of 
    the same hard drive for core.img. core.img is at this location and looks 
    in partition 1 for (,msdos1)/boot/grub.
 => No boot loader is installed in the MBR of /dev/sdb.
 => Syslinux MBR (4.04 and higher) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sdh.

sda1: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       
    Boot sector type:  -
    Boot sector info: 
    Mounting failed:   mount: unknown filesystem type ''
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up vote 0 down vote accepted

It does appear that the power failure has corrupted your main partition /dev/sda1. It's fortunate you have a separate /home partition, as your data should be okay.

You can start by running fsck on /dev/sda1. Boot from your live CD/USB and run:

sudo fsck /dev/sda1

Additional information

You can supply options to fsck to force checking even if the filesystem appears clean, respond Y to repair requests automatically, and specify verbose output, or all of these, for example:

sudo fsck -fyv /dev/sda1
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Wow, that's all it took. Well, that and responding <y> a couple of hundred times. Stalled for a little bit on the reboot while checking the drive again, and then right to my Desktop. Snooped around for about an hour and I can't find anything missing. Thanks so much for your help. – SubEWL Dec 23 '12 at 2:15
I should have mentioned that you can supply a -y option to avoid having to respond to every repair request. My bad :( – bcbc Dec 23 '12 at 7:30

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