I upgraded from Ubuntu 12.04 to 12.10 and after this I have no audio devices in the audio settings panel, but other parts of the system indicate that I do still have audio devices. Eg:
aplay -l returns
**** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices **** card 0: Intel [HDA Intel], device 0: STAC92xx Analog [STAC92xx Analog] Subdevices: 0/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: Generic [HD-Audio Generic], device 3: HDMI 0 [HDMI 0] Subdevices: 0/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
What can I do to debug this further? All the links I've found such as https://wiki.ubuntu.com/DebuggingSoundProblems don't resolve my problem. For example alsamixer thinks there is no problem and happily lets me change volumes and mute/unmute. Thanks!
Update: A clue: I was wondering if it had anything to do with the fact I have two sound devices, one from my discrete GPU for HDMI and one from Intel. It turns out this is the culprit! If I switch to my discrete GPU (using vga_switcheroo) audio works again through the speakers. It's good to know, but I don't use my discrete GPU often because the increased heat/power to do absolutely nothing is pointless for me under Linux :/.