Those partitioning errors suggest that you've either got a damaged partition table or you've got a system that's confused about RAID options. The latter seems more likely. Either the disk was partitioned with RAID features active but you're reading it in Linux with RAID inactive or vice-versa. Either way, you should work to get the RAID situation sorted out. Check the options in the firmware and in Windows related to RAID. If it's active, you probably need to ensure that the
dmraid package is up and running in the Ubuntu installer; if not, you need to uninstall it, and you may need to remove stray RAID data. I'm afraid I don't have more detailed references handy, but some Web searches should turn up more information.
Concerning your inability to boot in EFI mode, I'm not entirely sure what's going wrong, although it could be related to Secure Boot. You could try disabling this feature in your firmware. (Ubuntu 12.10 supposedly includes Secure Boot support, but this feature is brand-new and may yet be buggy on some systems.) It's also possible you're running into a GRUB bug. Note that it is possible to install Ubuntu in BIOS/legacy mode and then switch the boot mode. For greatest flexibility, I recommend you create a separate FAT, ext2fs, ext3fs, or ReiserFS
/boot partition when you install. This will make it relatively easy to experiment with certain boot loaders and boot managers, such as rEFInd, gummiboot, and ELILO. All of these boot programs require that the kernel be readable by the EFI, which can be arranged if the kernel is on a FAT, ext2fs, ext3fs, or ReiserFS partition. (For anything but FAT, you'll need filesystem drivers that ship with rEFInd.) You can install one of these programs from Windows and configure it to boot your Linux kernel in EFI mode, which can simplify the process of converting from a BIOS/legacy-mode boot to an EFI-mode boot.