Unless the program is logging its output into a file, I'd say "no, not directly".
However, there is a way of achieving what you want. Use
screen, which is a virtual console multiplexer:
(You can also use
tmux which is more modern, but I'm not familiar with that so my answer will talk about screen).
Once you get
- Log into the remote system.
screen (just type
screen, then read the intro screen, press space).
- You'll see what looks like a standard command prompt. It is, however it lives inside one of
screen's virtual consoles.
- Start your program here.
- When you want to leave your program working and log out, first "detach"
screen. This "detaches" it from your actual terminal but screen (and the program contained inside it) continue running. The program thinks it's connected to an actual terminal so it will see no difference. To do this, press
screen's control prefix). You'll go back to a command prompt.
- To reconnect to a running
screen instance, type
screen -rd. This will bring back
screen and your running program.
You can of course detach and then log out entirely. When you log back in, you just
screen -rd to get your "session" back.
Screen can do a lot more than that, you can have multiple "consoles" open, switch between them, copy and paste data, and even use split views and fancy stuff like that.