If you have
python2.7-minimal (or any of the other variants) installed, you should have the file
/usr/bin/python2.7 present. Normally,
/usr/bin/python will be symlinked to this file, so that a simple call of
python actually ends up running /usr/bin/python2.7.
me@banshee:~$ ls -l /usr/bin/python*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Apr 17 2012 /usr/bin/python -> python2.7
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Apr 17 2012 /usr/bin/python2 -> python2.7
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2989480 Aug 1 01:40 /usr/bin/python2.7
If you do have
/usr/bin/python2.7 but you're missing
/usr/bin/python, you can simply recreate it from the command line:
you@yourbox:~$ sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python2.7 /usr/bin/python
If you're missing
/usr/bin/python2.7, you'll need to reinstall it (again) as proposed by the other answers. Please post back here if that's the case.