First if your just trying to get the drive working again then try:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=1M
make sure to change /dev/sdx to the correct drive
This will basically erase anything and everything on the disk by writing 0s to it. Use with case (you will need to use sudo, I left it out for safety)
Once the disk is erased totally (dd should take a long time, maybe even hours) then go ahead and try to use fdisk to partition the drive.
Again this will erase data so use with care and make sure you have the right disk. Finally create a new primary partition, number 1, when asked for start sector, press enter (accepting the default), and do the same (accept the default) when asked for the end sector.
Finally format the partition by running
This will make the drive ready to use in Linux using the ext4 file system with sensible defaults.
If you truly have bad sectors (and it's not just some odd happenstance from your aborted format) Throw the disk out and go get a new one. The are dead cheap, and a disk that has bad sectors will just continue to get worse. I would try the wipe first though. Your "bad sectors" are most likely not bad. I haven't see bad sectors in years (like back when 20GB was a lot of data, and that was the biggest drive you could ever get).