If you can download the packages to your other computer and then transfer them on a USB key, CD or similar, then we can get the job done. First, let's get build-essential: http://packages.ubuntu.com/precise/build-essential
Download the package as appropriate to your architecture; either i386 (32-bit) or amd64 (64-bit). Find out which you have with this command:
32-bit will report as i686 and 64-bit as x86_64.
The red dots indicate that the package build-essential depends on dpkg-dev, g++, gcc, libc6-dev or libc-dev and make. Download those packages also.
Now for linux-headers: http://packages.ubuntu.com/search?ke...se§ion=all As you can see, you can download linux-headers-generic or linux-headers-generic-pae. Find out which you need with:
This package depends on the headers matching your running kernel. That means that, in addition to the 'generic' or generic-pae' package, you'll also need linux-headers for your kernel. For example, if the uname -r command shows that you are running 3.2.0-23-generic, you will need linux-headers-3.2.0-23-generic.
Once you have all these on a USB key or CD, drag and drop these on to the desktop of your Ubuntu installation. Open a terminal and do:
sudo dpkg -i *.deb
The wildcard * will install every .deb on your desktop. Note any errors and download and install any other packages as needed.
Now let's install the tar.gz. Right click the file and select 'Extract Here.' Now back to the terminal:
cd Desktop/some_file <--substitue the name of the file you extracted