Programs installed from the Software Center should be installed globally(system wide) and will be available to all users. Each user will have their own file in their account to save there preferences and data except any user logged in as a guest as their data is deleted on logging out.
I would think that most(if not all) programs that need root privileges to install would also be usable by any user.
.sh and .bin files that install without
root will only be available by the user that installed it unless the folder that it is installed in is made available to all users via the sharing options via the mouse right click or the command line
chmod. This is because progrmas that install without
root only install into the home directory of the user that installed them.
To answer the part of your question about Wine, if it is installed via the Software Center or
apt-get is will be available to all users. This is true even if you download a current
deb file from winehq.org. If yo download the
tar file from the sourceforge.net/ page it will (likely) only be installed locally and only available to one user.