I am currently trying to get Grub back. I have tried everything from reinstalling, to boot-repair, and even super boot manager. Nothing seems to work.
I have created a log with boot-repair here.
Ubiquity (the Ubuntu installer) installed Ubuntu in the wrong mode. You were affected by this bug: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/ubiquity/+bug/1050940
It also removed the