You've installed grub2 into the MBR of /dev/sda1 - the Windows boot partition according to the first bootinfo summary. It's not necessary to do this, and I'm not too sure what it will do to Windows. I'm also not sure how to repair it - you might try one of the Windows support sites and see what they say.
If you resized the Windows boot partition during the install it's a very good idea to run chkdsk and defrag on the NTFS partition before you proceed. This ensures that the resize operation is done quickly and with the least chance of corrupting the Windows install.
At this point you should back up all the data on the Windows partition because if it's not possible to repair it, you will need to re-install. (and if you resized the partition, it should be backed up anyway - resizing is a risky operation at the best of times).
/dev/sda4 appears to contain the Windows recovery partition. Under no circumstances modify this partition if you don't have the installation disks. Consult the system manual on re-installing Windows from this partition.
If you run the Windows installer after installing Ubuntu, it will overwrite the grub bootloader with the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record). What you need to do is boot the LiveCD and chroot into the Ubuntu system, then re-install grub2
From looking at the bootinfo it appears that the Ubuntu / partition is /dev/sda6
For the purposes of these instructions I'm going to write /dev/sdX from now, to prevent new users blindly typing these commands. You will need to replace /dev/sdX with your Linux partition.
Firstly, boot the LiveCD and in a terminal window mount the Ubuntu root partition:
sudo mount /dev/sdaX /mnt
Next, export the LiveCD filesystem to the root filesystem on the drive:
sudo mount ‐‐bind /dev /mnt/dev
sudo mount ‐‐bind /proc /mnt/proc
sudo mount ‐‐bind /sys /mnt/sys
Now change the root filesystem to the hard disk:
sudo chroot /mnt
Now re-install grub2 to /dev/sda
sudo grub-install /dev/sda
At this point you could reboot and it should allow you to boot into Ubuntu, however if Windows was installed after Ubuntu then it won't know about the Windows OS yet. To fix this run update-grub:
and it will find all OS's on your system and add them to the grub menu. You can now reboot: