There's also a file called install_unix which you have to apply the chmod +x trick to. Can't remember which folder it's in, but it'll be clear straight away as it's not in a subfolder.
Also, when you're selecting which components to install, there's a reason the licence manager is automatically not selected. Please leave it unselected - it'll just cause trouble.
Make sure the installation folder is correct, as this can't really be changed otherwise. I had to move it for administrative reasons, but eventually gave up trying and just reinstalled (though that might have cost my University some money).
Another thing that might help is to take the option to install scripts (something like that) so that there's a file you run to actually start MATLAB. You can make do without this option, but then every time you start you'll have to directly access a critical program file, which might be a little bit dangerous. Don't worry about the folder where these scripts are installed, as you can make copies and wherever they are, when run they'll link to the MATLAB root folder.
Once you've installed, it might help to change the startup directory by right clicking in the directory bar and selecting preferences. The startup directory should be where you want to keep MATLAB-related files you made yourself, like scripts and functions & maybe results from running them/other data. It might be really dangerous to use the MATLAB root folder for this sort of thing.
It's not necessary to alter the install_info file as the installation options are determined using a dialog box interface.
You might like to install a desktop shortcut to access MATLAB without opening a terminal. For this, the terminal needs to be operated in bash mode. I got the shortcut installed, but I don't think I understand how so I'll leave you to work that out/look it up.