I'm sure this must be fairly simple but can't find it here.
How does one go from having a blank SD card to having an SD card that boots a Raspi?
Easy Install & Resize the SD Card on the Raspberry Pi on Ubuntu.
If you're interested on resizing your SD CARD, check the source of this answer
You can do it from the command line as well. No need to install anything.
Type the following (mutatis mutandis):
and wait for the command to return. It may be quite a while, especially over usb2.
Resizing can be done from the Pi itself in the