Yes and No will be the answer.
"The Linux kernel" is a fairly complicated piece of software which can be compiled in a number of different ways. Basically, a configuration file is set up with a laundry-list of options, and this file subsequently determines exactly which blocks of source-code are or are not included in "the Linux kernel" for your system. (The same process also determines which kernel modules are built.)
Generally speaking, a distro writer will do all of that "heavy lifting" for you:
They'll compile one or more kernels, using config options that they have carefully selected, and include those (in binary form) in their distributions. They might even include custom patches.
So, the answer to your question is both 'yes' and 'no'.
- Yes, several distros might use "Linux version X.Y.Z."
- No, they might not use the same configuration options when building it.
Courtesy: sundialsvcs' comment here.
Also check out this post on stackoverflow for some more related information.