As covered by others in http://superuser.com/questions/196673/producing-a-specific-ascii-character-in-ubuntu, I'm afraid not.
I've done it with DOS related operating systems but not with Unix related ones. The codes were generated within BIOS with the initial PC's. Linux starts with raw key codes and does its own thing to figure out what code point you want. It now runs on many platforms.
The compose key may be your best bet if you don't want to use the Unicode sequence. The compose key is defined in the Keyboard Layout -> Options window.
Of course you can use the Unicode sequence to type in the first 128 bytes of ASCII, but it involves extra keys and keystrokes. If you mind those, or if you want the extended ASCII characters and find it easier to remember the extended ASCII code points, I'm sorry but I don't think there's a good answer for you.
PC BIOS Source: IBM P/N 6361453 page 5-59 and 5-60.