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If I'm root, how can I give a user permission to open low port numbers ? Or how can I take away the right to open high port numbers from a user?

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You can allow specific programs (not users) to open privileged ports:

setcap 'cap_net_bind_service=+ep' /path/to/executable

As for restricting access to certain ports, see Allow/Deny a user from binding a range of ports.

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