ls is the standard command to list files in Ubuntu and other Linux and Unix operating systems.
ls is particularly useful to learn because you will find it installed on every Unix system you ever meet. By default running this displays only the files in the current directory.
-R 'flag' is the recursive option (note the capital R, not r) which will show you all the sub-directories as well.
You asked for "details" too - for this you want the
-l flag (that's a lowercase L, not the number one). Be aware this gives you file permissions information as well as file size, time/date info and file name.
If you want to also show hidden files/folders (the equivalent of Ctrl+H in Nautilus) then add the
-a 'all' flag.
You can merge flags together, to give you something like:
If you run this on any decent sized folder you will find this produces a huge long output that scrolls down your screen very fast. To get around this, you can 'pipe' the output of
ls through a program called
less (the name is a parody of the similar
more which was around first but has more features).
ls -lR | less
This will allow you to use the up/down arrow keys, alongside PageUp/Down to go through the output at a more comfortable speed.