Windows 7 Home Premium Intel i5 2500k CPU ASUSP8Z68-V PRO motherboard GeForce GTX 570 GPU Corsair 120Gb SSD (Windows 7 OS) WD 1 TB HDD
I select the USB drive in the BIOS and boot to it and choose install. I select to manually configure partitions, partition the 200 GB of unallocated space on my 1 TB HDD into 16 GB swap file, 30 GB
/ ext4, and 154 GB
I make sure that the boot loader is installed to corsair 120Gb SSD (where the Windows boot is) and the installation goes smoothly.
When I reboot after the install it runs through the BIOS straight into Windows. I have tried upwards of a dozen times and I have also tried with Linux Mint. I have also redownloaded the ISO and used two different programs to create the live USB.
The installation seems to go well as, after the install, I can see the partitions I have created in the windows device manager.
I currently run Lubuntu on my laptop but it is not a dual boot. I'm assuming this is a boot loader issue and I am assuming that inside those partitioned files in my screenshot there is a working OS of ubuntu 12.04. I just have no way of getting to it.
UPDATE (copied from comment)
I booted using my Live USB and used the
boot-repair tool suggested in virpara's answer.
Upon opening the tool I saw that it was recognizing my SSD as a removeable drive and defaulting to install on the HDD. Once I realized that I was able to force install onto the SDD. My computer can now boot Ubuntu.