How to install Visual Studio 2012?
How do you install Visual Studio 2010 Professional on Ubuntu 11.10?
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You'll need to run a virtual machine. Wine won't be able to handle it. Look into install VirtualBox (not necessarily the best but easier). You'll need to create a windows VM and then once you have windows installed install Visual Studio.
If you're looking at equivalent IDEs. Qt Creator, Eclipse, KDevelop, Anjuta, Intellij can all act as possible alternatives depending on the language you wish you develop in.
Possibly useful link on how install windows on VirtualBox: http://www.wikihow.com/Install-Windows-XP-on-Ubuntu-with-VirtualBox
Visual Studio is tightly integrated with Windows and Developing a .NET application using any language (C# or VB) takes more than just having Wine, and since Wine is not capable enough to provide complete development runtime as .NET in Linux.
If you want to develop software specifically in C#, on Linux, you can use MonoDevelop
Since, you're asking for Visual Studio 2010 (.NET 4.0), with MonoDevelop, you'll not be able to develop an app that particularly uses .NET 4, as of now MonoDevelop is in version 3.0.2 (somewhat equivalent to .NET 3.0).
You can still use Windows virtually within Ubuntu, using VirtualBox. And then install Visual Studio there, but still a serious app development is not recommended to be done in Virtualized environment.