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When I turn on my PC, it says:

Case 1

BusyBox v1.17.1 (ubuntu 1:1.17.1-10 ubuntu1) buil-in shell (ash)
enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

Case 2

In Recovery Mode, it says:

706-4e 6e-9416-17889748 bbd onb /root failed:input/output error
Begin:running/scripts/local booting...done
Begin:running/scripts/local booting...mount:mounting/dev on /root/dev failed :no such file or directory
mount:mounting/sys on /root/sys failed :no such file or directory
mount:mounting/proc on /root/proc failed :no such file or directory
Target filesystem doesn't have a requested /sbin/init.
No init found. Try passing init=bootarg.

BusyBox v1.17.1 (ubuntu 1:1.17.1-10 ubuntu1) buil-in shell (ash)
enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
[ 34.664739] atkbd serio0: unknown key pressed (translated set2, code 0xd9 on isa0060/serio0)....
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  1. Boot from the Ubuntu Live CD;

  2. Open/Run Terminal;

  3. Type: sudo fdisk -l (to get the device name) then press Enter;

    Disk /dev/sda: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
    Disk identifier: **********
    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/sda1 * 1 30238 242886703+ 83 Linux
    /dev/sda2 30239 30401 1309297+ 5 Extended
    /dev/sda5 30239 30401 1309266 82 Linux swap / Solaris

    The device name for my friend's system based on the above: /dev/sda1

  4. Type: sudo fsck /dev/sda1 then press Enter;

  5. Restart the system and boot normally.


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The above really doesn't cover all the bases of this error.

You might need to boot from Live CD, then chroot into the system. (bind mount /dev, mount /proc), and then run update-grub, and then grub-install /dev/root-device

I've done this many times, and it really needs to be made easier, and also made possible when you can't run the target's binaries, which I only managed to do by hacking the grub-mkconfig script, which is a uber-PITA.

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