The short answer is that you almost certainly want
emacs23: it's the full version of Emacs 23 with graphical support.
emacs23-nox is the same, but without any graphical support. If you're installing Emacs onto a server or other environment that lacks an X window system, you should fetch this version instead. (Note that
emacs23 works just fine on the terminal, so the only reason to prefer
emacs23 is if you don't want to drag in the dependencies.)
jove are not Emacs; they're lightweight editors that have Emacs modes to them.
emacs23-lucid is a very odd name for that package, but it's Emacs with an XEmacs interface. I'm not entirely clear why you'd grab that package, unless it actually is XEmacs with an odd name.