If your data is still there, it sounds like GRUB just needs to be reinstalled. I would suggest grabbing a Ubuntu Live CD or a Ubuntu Rescue CD and boot the computer off of that. Then, select the option to boot from the CD in "rescue mode". Go through the prompts, selecting your keyboard layout, etc...
It'll ask you for a hostname. Don't be alarmed - this is only temporary.
Eventually, you should get to a prompt, where one of the options is to "reinstall GRUB". Select that one, reboot, and see if it helps.
The upgrade I performed last night totally screwed my laptop up, and I just went through this entire method earlier today.
In my case, I was on a Dual Boot (two operating systems). Regardless of how many OS's you have (even if its just Ubuntu), you'll need a working Grub configuration.