I would like to know what would be the best filesystem configuration for a Samsung SSD 830 of a fresh Ubuntu 12.04 install on my laptop (Asus U33JC). I've seen people suggesting a RAID configuration, but I have no idea where to start with this.
RAID is designed for multiple disks (be it HDDs or SSDs) and is used on servers.
To enable discard you should alter the /etc/fstab file. Mine looks like this after a clean install using two SSDs:
The noatime means it won't update the "last access time" when you open the files, saving a few extra writes.