It sounds like you just installed Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty. Therefore, this implies that you know how to install Ubuntu the regular way with the graphical desktop CD/DVD installer.
However, you said you used the "CHIP" live DVD.
I am not sure what CHIP or their live DVD is. Is www.CHIP.de a site for a German computer magazine or something?
Well regardless, assuming you just installed Ubuntu from this DVD, there is one very big problem. Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty is no longer supported by Ubuntu. This means it will no longer receive security or bug fix updates/patches. The bottom line of this is that if you use 9.04, your it will be vulnerable to any new malware (viruses) or hacking attempts that have been developed since Ubuntu 9.04's support stopped last month (it was supported for 1.5 years.) The support life-times are explained in the 1st google result for the search term "ubuntu wiki releases".
Fortunately, the solution to the lack of support is the same solution that will likely make your laptop work with Ubuntu. The solution is to install a newer version of Ubuntu that is supported for a while. Ubuntu 10.10 maverick is the latest version and will be supported until April 2012, but your system is fairly old so I'd recommend ubuntu 10.04 lucid which is supported until April 2013 (and partially supported until April 2015.) Since Ubuntu 10.04 is a newer version/release it is very likely to include a fix for the bug that prevents 9.04 from starting up.
To download Ubuntu 10.04 and then install it, follow this link:
Select "Ubuntu 10.04 - Long Term Support" and then "32-bit, recommended". Then hit download. On this same page you will see instructions for burning the 10.04 CD and installing it. Once it is burnt, it will be the same basic steps that you used to install 9.04 Jaunty. However, you will want to chose to install 10.04 to your entire 20GB hard drive that Ubuntu 9.04 jaunty is on, deleting the old Ubuntu 9.04 install in the process. (Remember, you only want to do this if you do not have any data on the Ubuntu 20GB drive as it will be lost! (Which I presume because I presume you just installed it.) If you do have any data on the Ubuntu drive, copy it over to the windows drive, or a CD, or a usb drive, etc.)
Of course, I presume you have data on your 80GB windows drive so make sure windows (the NTFS parition) on that drive is not touched.)
Again, assuming you just installed 9.04, the steps above to install 10.04 are what I strongly recommend. However we may be able to make your 9.04 install work by installing all bug-fix/security updates for it from the recovery mode. This is assuming you have broadband (fast) internet connection rather than dial-up, which would greatly complicate and slow down things. Here are the steps:
Make sure you are connected to the internet (via a router or whatever) over a wired ethernet connection, as opposed to wireless. (Wired ethernet is the usual way for a desktop.) If you are on wireless, tell me and I'll give you a lot more instructions.
Turn on your computer and at the boot menu, select: Ubuntu 9.04 kernel 2.6.28 – 11 genuine (Recovery Mode)
Ubuntu should start up into recovery mode, getting past the error you saw before. Once you see a blue menu with several text options, select "Drop to root shell prompt" (it may be named something similar.)
4: At this root shell prompt, (it's a command prompt, like the old days of dos, but way more powerful) enter these commands:
(You have to enter these commands exactly. You will see a lot of text scroll by for each step, and the 2nd one may take a few hours on your computer. The 2nd one will prompt you to continue, hit Y for yes, then enter.) If you don't run into any errors, that means your system is updated successfully.)
5: Assuming it worked correctly, you enter the following command to reboot:
shutdown -r now
6: When the computer gets back to the boot menu, you should see Ubuntu with a higher kernel number as the default. Select that and see if it starts up successfully without running into the bug you saw before.
I apologize for this message being so long but it was necessary for the seriousness of the problem and to make things easily understood yet comprehensive. Ask me if you have any questions at all.