I want to know what the major differences are between Windows and Linux file creation.
Let's say I'm in a terminal session and I type:
touch file. What happens behind the scenes in Linux? What is the process in the operating system?
In Linux when you make a file:
It can be a confusing concept at first to get your brain around but it's quite simple. Inodes are there as sign posts to the actual data but in order to use any of that you need the hardlinks to show the structure of the filesystem.
This allows you to have multiple hardlinks to one inode, for example, as long as they're both on the same partition.
Obvious side effects are that multiple-hardlinks don't exist but it's more than that - you often can't delete a file (which would be just removing the hardlink in Linux) that is locked for opening (which would be handled by inode data in Linux).
But other than that (fairly major) difference, they're quite similar.
Turns out that Since Vista, NTFS works very much like common Linux filesystems. It supports both hard and soft links suggesting they have an inode-like object between data and path.
In short: There isn't much difference these days. On older versions of Windows than Vista, my scrubbed answer above carries.