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Ubuntu boots normal, and I can even login in terminal at any TTY (tt1 ~ tty6), but not in Graphical mode.

This happened after a power-suspend. As I was trying to resume after the system suspended due to a running low battery, and wasn't getting my Ubuntu back, I made a hard reset (power button). I could not login anymore from that moment on.

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I've just suffered from powercut-induced corruption so I'm perhaps a bit biased toward that conclusion but nonetheless. I couldn't get past grub so booted to a LiveUSB and ran sudo fsck -y /dev/... for my main partition. A lot of worrying notices later and I was back on my desktop.

Failing that I would check /var/log/Xorg.0.log for some sort of indication about what's going on. If X isn't logging you in properly, there should be something in there.

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Hard resets also commonly leave the ~/.Xauthority file behind, which will prevent the graphical desktop from starting.

It's safe to delete and will be automatically recreated when you restart.

From a tty: rm .Xauthority

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