Sorry for taking such a long time to answer, but I was trying to fix the drive.
In the end I made a gparted live-usb, then ran testdisk (tutorial: http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/15761/recover-data-like-a-forensics-expert-using-an-ubuntu-live-cd/). I then had the infamous gparted error where the entire drive was "unallocated".
After some looking around I found out this means that the partition table is corrupt. The partitions themselves, though, were accessible. After using testdisk a number of times in an attempt to fix the partition table, to no avail, I looked up other tutorials.
One of them said to do: "fdisk /dev/sdX", then check if the partitions it presents are correct, then write the new partition table. This also didn't work for me.
I then found a tool called "fixparts" which fixes corrupt partition table. I then made sure that the partitions I wanted (were) primary or logical are correct. Unfortunately, fixparts didn't get my "files and downloads" partition (shared between OSs) correct. I panicked.
I ran testdisk again, and gparted showed "unallocated" again. But I still had access to my files. I made a backup of all my useful files, of the files I needed from /home and from the now damaged files partition. I then ran fixparts once more.
In gparted I tried to fix how the partitions were supposed to be, but it didn't let me. So I had to erase my home and files partitions (in the extended) then grow the extended (there were 22 gigs of unallocated for some reason, which were part of my original files partition). I made the new home, swap and files partitions. I then had to reinstall ubuntu, and while the 300+ mb of updates downloaded (I have slow internet) I left all the files from the backup copying overnight.
I write this post from my newly updated Ubuntu install, with all the files where they're supposed to be. I tell my odyssey in hope someone will find it useful and be able to fix their corrupt drives.