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I was wondering how /etc/motd is automatically updated (I'm on Ubuntu 10.04, server edition). I found the update-motd manpage via a web search, but that program is not installed on my machine. The /etc/motd file is regularly updated, however. I just don't know how and how often. When doing a locate motd, following files are listed:

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up vote 27 down vote accepted

It's updated by pam_motd on login. The update-motd manual page describes this:

   Ubuntu introduced the update-motd framework, by which  the  motd(5)  is
   dynamically assembled from a collection of scripts at login.

   Executable  scripts in /etc/update-motd.d/* are executed by pam_motd(8)
   as the root user at each login, and this information is concatenated in
   /var/run/motd.  The order of script execution is determined by the run-
   parts(8) --lsbsysinit option (basically alphabetical order, with a  few

   On   Ubuntu   systems,  /etc/motd  is  typically  a  symbolic  link  to
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you can force with sudo run-parts /etc/update-motd.d/ –  Pete Nov 22 '13 at 19:09
@Pete, I tried that command, and although it printed out the relevant information, it did not actually change the text in /etc/motd. Is this expected? –  snapfractalpop Dec 20 '13 at 15:16
@snapfractalpop, Sorry, I was wrong. You can use run-parts for debugging, it will spit out what the resulting motd will be if you are making additions to /etc/update-motd.d. As far as I can tell, the only way to update the file is by triggering pam_motd. On my system it appears to be the services login and sshd (grep pam_motd /etc/pam.d/*) –  Pete Dec 20 '13 at 20:40
@snapfractalpop Yes, that's expected. If you want to update /etc/motd redirect the output there: run-parts /etc/update-motd.d/ | sudo tee /etc/motd –  n.st Jan 4 at 3:23
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